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BATON ROUGE, La. (BRPROUD)— For some, comfort food is chicken pot pie, mac and cheese, or pepperoni pizza, but many Louisianans view jambalaya as one of the ultimate comfort foods. 

The blend of ingredients seems simple enough: rice with chicken and sausage or shrimp and other seafood. 

But jambalaya’s preparation style and use of Creole-Cajun seasonings push it well past the boundaries of ‘simple.’ 

The food delivers a spicy kick that doesn’t overwhelm but is just hot enough to wrap its proteins and rice in a depth of warm, rich flavor.   

It isn’t paella

Some compare it to paella, a one-pot specialty from Eastern Spain’s Valencian Community. 

But they’re not quite the same. 

Experts point out that paella features Spain’s bomba rice, while jambalaya is typically made with long-grain rice and includes the ‘holy trinity’ of Creole-Cajun cooking: Celery, onion, and green bell pepper.  

A complex history

As a filling dish that was created with readily available ingredients, jambalaya seems to have humble origins. It was a flavorful food for survivors who lived off the land or could only afford inexpensive ingredients. 

That said, nowadays it’s found everywhere in Louisiana, from wedding receptions to kitchens in some of New Orleans’ most impressive restaurants.   

So, how did jambalaya make its way from humble dinner tables to noteworthy restaurants? And, who invented the recipe in the first place? 

Well, many historians agree that jambalaya’s origins are as complex as its vast array of ingredients.

The mystery behind the name

For example, even getting to the root of where the word “jambalaya” originated is baffling. 

Historians say the recipe is a reflection of the many cultures that lived together in Louisiana, and because of this, its name could have originated with the Native Americans, African-Americans, French, or Spanish, or a blend of several cultures.

To illustrate, settlers from the Southeastern Province of France who spoke Provençal may have referred to the dish using the Provençal word, “jambalaia,” which meant a mishmash or mixture. 

But there’s also the possibility that the Spanish referred to the dish with the Spanish word for “ham,” which is “jamon” and with the word, “paella,” in reference to the one-pot, rice dish mentioned earlier in this article. That would have formed the word ‘jamon-paella,’ which sounds quite similar to ‘jambalaya.’ 

There is also the possibility that the name finds its origins in the French word, “jambon” for ham, with a contraction of “a la” and “ya,” which is said to be an African word for rice. 

Meanwhile, others believe that jambalaya’s name originated with the Atakapa, a Native American tribe along the Gulf Coast, who might say, “Sham, pal ha! Ya!” or “Be full, not skinny! Eat up!”

Who invented jambalaya?

The mystery surrounding the origins of the dish’s name continues into the history of its creation.

No one can say exactly who invented jambalaya.

Instead, historians generally agree that jambalaya is a combination of foods and flavors that reflect the various cultures of the region—African, Spanish, French, and Native American. 

For example, one popular theory is that in the early 19th century, jambalaya was created when Spanish settlers in New Orleans attempted to make paella, which typically included saffron. But since saffron was not readily available, they used tomatoes. The dish is said to have evolved over time and become more French in style as andouille and other French-inspired ingredients were included. 

Britannica Encyclopedia adds, “There are also strong West African associations, specifically with similar one-pot dishes, notably jollof rice.”

A reflection of Louisiana’s many cultures

The rustic dish we now know as ‘jambalaya’ comes from a complex past, and many would say this is what adds to its distinctive flavor.

Much like the people of Louisiana, an amalgam of cultures working side-by-side and often fusing their traditions, jambalaya reflects each culture’s ability to adapt and even thrive under challenging circumstances. 

Click here for a jambalaya recipe.